# Study Guide

##
Field 014: Physics

Test Design and Framework

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The test design below describes general assessment information. The framework that follows is a detailed outline that explains the knowledge and skills that this test measures.

### Test Design

*Does not include 15-minute C B T tutorial

### Test Framework

subareas | range of competencies | approximate percentage of test | |
---|---|---|---|

selected-response | |||

roman numeral 1 | scientific and engineering processes | 0001–0002 | 20 percent |

roman numeral 2 | motion, forces, and energy | 0003–0006 | 21 percent |

roman numeral 3 | electricity and magnetism | 0007–0009 | 17 percent |

roman numeral 4 | waves, acoustics, and optics | 0010–0012 | 13 percent |

roman numeral 5 | thermal and modern physics | 0013–0015 | 14 percent |

this cell intentionally left blank | 85 percent |

subareas | range of competencies | approximate percentage of test | |
---|---|---|---|

constructed-response | |||

roman numeral 1 | scientific and engineering processes | 0001–0002 | 15 percent |

#### Subarea roman numeral 1–Scientific and Engineering Processes

##### Competency 0001–Apply knowledge of scientific inquiry and experimental and engineering design.

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examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Use the International System of Units and prefixes appropriately.
- Apply knowledge of accuracy and precision and the use of appropriate tools and technologies.
- Analyze appropriate means of asking questions and planning and carrying out investigations.
- Evaluate the design of a physics or scientific experiment or investigation.
- Apply scientific reasoning and experiences to define, analyze, solve, evaluate, and optimize engineering problems.

##### Competency 0002–Apply knowledge of cross cutting concepts in science.

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examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
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- Apply knowledge of the use of models to explore and explain phenomena.
- Apply concepts of scale, proportion, and quantity to analyze natural phenomena.
- Apply a variety of broad scientific concepts (e.g., systems, classification, patterns, energy and matter, structure and function, stability and change) across science.
- Apply knowledge of major theories and concepts in chemistry, biology, and Earth and space science.
- Interpret data presented in a variety of formats.
- Apply concepts of statistics (e.g., correlation, standard deviation) and mathematics (e.g., inverse variation, exponential growth) to analyze data and develop models.
- Apply knowledge of the historical development of concepts in physics.
- Apply physics knowledge to societal issues (e.g., environmental quality, personal and community health).

#### Subarea roman numeral 2–Motion, Forces, and Energy

##### Competency 0003–Analyze motion in one and two dimensions.

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- Analyze the motion of an object using multiple representations (e.g., graphs, equations, motion maps).
- Apply principles of algebra and basic calculus to solve problems involving motion in one dimension.
- Apply principles of geometry and trigonometry to vectors to analyze motion in two dimensions, including uniform circular motion.
- Solve problems involving free-fall and projectile motion.

##### Competency 0004–Apply the laws of motion in one and two dimensions.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Understand free body diagrams and use them to represent a given situation.
- Analyze the forces acting in a variety of situations (e.g., inclined plane, Atwood's machine).
- Solve problems involving frictional forces and elastic forces (i.e., Hooke's law).
- Apply Newton's laws to solve problems in one and two dimensions, including uniform circular motion.
- Apply knowledge of concepts associated with Newton's laws (e.g., inertia, reference frames, force pairs).

##### Competency 0005–Apply the laws of motion to systems of particles and simple harmonic motion.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Apply the law of universal gravitation in a variety of situations, including satellite and planetary motion.
- Apply the concept of torque to solve problems involving static equilibrium and rotational dynamics.
- Apply principles of fluids (e.g., Archimedes' principle, Bernoulli's principles) to situations involving fluids.
- Analyze simple harmonic motion using graphs, equations, and trigonometric functions.

##### Competency 0006–Apply the principles of the conservation of energy and momentum.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
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- Analyze systems and situations in terms of work, energy, power, momentum, and impulse.
- Apply the conservation of energy and the work energy theorem to solve problems (e.g., gravitational potential energy, simple harmonic motion).
- Apply the principle of conservation of linear momentum to solve problems in one and two dimensions.
- Apply the law of conservation of angular momentum.
- Evaluate situations for the appropriate use of conservation laws.

#### Subarea roman numeral 3–Electricity and Magnetism

##### Competency 0007–Apply knowledge of electric charge and the electric field.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Analyze situations involving static electricity (e.g., the behavior of an electroscope, charging by induction).
- Apply Coulomb's law to find the electric force on a given charge due to a simple charge distribution in one or two dimensions.
- Understand the electric field for a simple or symmetric charge distribution (e.g., point charge, electric dipole, line charge).
- Analyze the force on and the motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.
- Apply knowledge of electric potential energy and potential difference to solve problems.

##### Competency 0008–Analyze characteristics of the magnetic field, magnetic interactions with charges, and principles of electromagnetic induction.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Apply knowledge of properties of permanent magnets and understand the magnetic domain model.
- Analyze the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field of various simple current-carrying sources (e.g., wire of infinite length, solenoid).
- Analyze the magnitude and direction (e.g., right-hand rule) of the force on and the motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field.
- Analyze factors that affect the magnitude and direction of an induced electromotive force.
- Apply knowledge of the use of electricity and magnetism in technology (e.g., electric motors, microphones, power generation and transmission).

##### Competency 0009–Apply knowledge of electric circuits.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Apply knowledge of current, resistance, potential difference, capacitance, and Ohm's law to solve problems.
- Analyze series and parallel circuits and apply Kirchhoff's rules.
- Apply knowledge of schematics and characteristics of capacitors and inductors as well as RC and RLC circuits.
- Analyze energy and power relationships and transformations in electric circuits.
- Apply knowledge of fundamental characteristics of AC circuits (e.g., frequency, amplitude, RMS voltage).

#### Subarea roman numeral 4–Waves, Acoustics, and Optics

##### Competency 0010–Apply knowledge of waves and wave motion.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Apply knowledge of the transfer of energy and momentum in longitudinal and transverse waves.
- Apply concepts of amplitude, frequency, period, speed, and wavelengths to wave phenomena.
- Apply the superposition principle to determine characteristics of a resultant wave.
- Analyze the reflection, refraction, and diffraction of waves.

##### Competency 0011–Apply knowledge of sound propagation and sound waves.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Analyze factors that affect the speed of sound in different media.
- Apply concepts of amplitude, frequency, period, speed, and wavelengths to analyze acoustic phenomena.
- Understand the relationships between sound wave properties and the physiological perceptions of sound.
- Apply knowledge of the Doppler effect.
- Apply the superposition principle to solve problems involving standing waves (e.g., vibrating strings, air columns).

##### Competency 0012–Apply knowledge of light and optics.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Apply Snell's law to analyze wave refraction.
- Apply the ray model of light to analyze the formation of real and virtual images formed by lenses and mirrors.
- Apply the thin lens equation to solve problems.
- Apply the wave properties of light to analyze optical phenomena (e.g., single- and double-slit interference patterns, polarizers, thin films, Doppler effect).
- Apply knowledge of the electromagnetic spectrum and the production and transmission of electromagnetic waves.
- Apply knowledge of models of light to optical devices (e.g., prisms, microscopes, telescopes).

#### Subarea roman numeral 5–Thermal and Modern Physics

##### Competency 0013–Apply knowledge of kinetic theory and the laws of thermodynamics.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Compare and contrast mechanisms of heat transfer (i.e., conduction, convection, radiation).
- Apply knowledge of kinetic theory, including the molecular interpretation of temperature and entropy.
- Analyze the properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the motion and interactions of the molecules.
- Apply principles of specific heat, thermal expansion, and phase changes to solve problems.
- Apply the first and second laws of thermodynamics in a variety of situations (e.g., the mechanical equivalence of work, analyzing PV diagrams and heat engines).

##### Competency 0014–Apply knowledge of atomic structure and nuclear physics.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Apply knowledge of the development of atomic theory and of various models of the atom (e.g., Bohr, Schrödinger).
- Interpret notation used to represent elements, molecules, ions, and radiation.
- Apply the half-life concept to analyze radioactive decay.
- Apply knowledge of nuclear fission and fusion.
- Analyze equations representing nuclear reactions.
- Recognize the fundamental characteristics of the standard model of particle physics (e.g., quarks, leptons, bosons).

##### Competency 0015–Apply knowledge of quantum theory of light and matter.

*The following topics are
examples of content that may be covered under this competency.* end
italics

- Apply knowledge of the quantization of energy to the photoelectric effect and atomic spectra.
- Recognize evidence supporting the wave/particle nature of light and matter.
- Apply the de Broglie relations to solve problems.
- Apply knowledge of the special theory of relativity.
- Apply knowledge of basic principles of quantum mechanics (e.g., wave functions, probability amplitudes, the double-slit experiment, Heisenberg uncertainty principle).