Study Guide

Field 178: Dance 
Sample Selected-Response Questions

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General Test Directions

This test consists of two sections: 1) a section with selected-response questions and 2) a constructed-response section.

Each question in the first section is a selected-response question with four answer choices. Read each question and answer choice carefully and choose the  start uppercase ONE end uppercase  best answer.

Try to answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all. You will  start uppercase NOT end uppercase  be penalized for guessing.

The second section of this test consists of one constructed-response assignment. You will be asked to provide a written response to the assignment. Directions for completing your written response to the constructed-response assignment appear immediately before the assignment.

You may  start uppercase NOT end uppercase  use any type of calculator or reference materials during the test session.

Sample Selected-Response Questions

Competency 0001 
Apply knowledge of basic movement elements, concepts, and skills for creative movement and dance.

1. Which of the following elements related to time is used to create a sense of momentum during a dance?

  1. an uneven meter
  2. an increasing tempo
  3. a regular beat
  4. a long duration

Correct Response: B. While fast movement tends to be active and exciting, slower movement tends to be less stimulating. Therefore, as the tempo of movements increases in a dance, the viewer perceives a building of momentum because the visual and energetic stimulation provided by the movements increases.

Competency 0002 
Apply knowledge of human anatomy, kinesiology, and fitness.

2. Research studies show that people who participate in social dance as a regular activity experience benefits that include reduced feelings of stress and depression. Which of the following physiological effects of dancing most contributes to this wellness benefit?

  1. Increased blood flow to the brain enhances neurological and cognitive functions.
  2. Sustained movement increases energy output and calorie use.
  3. Physical activity prompts the body to release chemicals called endorphins.
  4. Mind-body connection strengthens the central nervous system.

Correct Response: C. During periods of physical activity, the human body releases endorphins, neurotransmitters that promote feelings of well-being and that act as pain reducers. Studies indicate that dancing is a particularly effective activity for endorphin production due to its rhythmic quality and its accompaniment by music.

Competency 0004 
Analyze dance as a way to create and communicate meaning.

3. A student choreographs a dance piece to reflect his feelings about a topic he has chosen. After he develops the motif and variations into a series of movement phrases and links them with transitional movements, he plans a color scheme for the lighting and costumes. As the final element, he selects musical accompaniment for the dance. The qualities of the music he chooses will most influence which of the following aspects of his planned dance?

  1. the movement ideas used in the motif and variations
  2. the tempo and pulse used in executing the movements
  3. the colors and fabric qualities of the costumes
  4. the movement ideas used in the transitions

Correct Response: B. The pulse provides a regular, recurring emphasis, or accented beat, in a piece of music. The tempo is the speed at which the pulse in the music recurs. Any piece of music has a particular tempo and pulse, and those rhythmic qualities are generally reflected in dance movement performed to the musical accompaniment.

Competency 0005 
Apply knowledge of the history and characteristics of major forms of concert and theatrical dance.

4. The style of rhythm tap known as power tapping, popularized by the dancing of Savion Glover, is most characterized by:

  1. high kicks, leaps, and other acrobatic techniques executed to land on the beat.
  2. full-body movement that reflects a fusion with modern dance techniques.
  3. an emphasis on slow, syncopated footwork executed with force at a low level.
  4. the use of hip-hop and funk rhythms in strong, fast, and intricate footwork.

Correct Response: D. Part of the resurgence of tap dance since the 1980s, power tapping is distinguished by dense, hard-hitting rhythms. The development of the style was influenced by hip hop and other contemporary music.

Competency 0006 
Apply knowledge of the history and characteristics of major forms of participatory, theatrical, and traditional dance globally.

5. Prior to the eighteenth century, most social dance forms danced by Western Europeans and Anglo-Americans included which of the following characteristics?

  1. open-ended pathways of movement
  2. movement in group formations
  3. restrained movement qualities
  4. improvisational steps and movements

Correct Response: B. From early times, social dances performed as forms of recreation and community expression in European societies most often were performed as group dances with individual and group movement prescribed by tradition. Today such dances are most often called folk or cultural dances. Circle, serpentine, and square group formations were common, dancers generally participated as a group, and movement often reflected daily activities and community values. The square and contra dances of colonial America derived from these European dances. In the seventeenth century, in balls at European courts and other high-society settings, choreographed dances in which couples danced in lines and groups, such as the minuet, allemande, and gavotte, were popular.

Competency 0007 
Analyze the relationship between dance and culture.

6. Which of the following characteristics of Eastern European folk dances most contributed to the function these dances traditionally served of strengthening a sense of group solidarity?

  1. choreographed patterns of movements, gestures, and relationships
  2. similarities in the costumes worn for performance
  3. the use of literal and abstract movements in conveying meaning
  4. movement patterns in circle, chain, and linear formations

Correct Response: D. Folk dance has traditionally been an integral part of many Eastern European communities. Among folk dance's many characteristics, the use of group formations, such as circles, chains, and lines, literally links the dancers in an expression of their group connection and identity.

Competency 0008 
Apply knowledge of the foundations of dance education and strategies required of the professional dance educator.

7. When a teacher develops a set of rules for student behavior in the dance classroom, it would be most important for the teacher to include which of the following expectations?

  1. behaviors that are likely to be familiar and comfortable based on students' home environments
  2. the types of rules established for students by teachers in other classrooms of the school
  3. behaviors that are developmentally appropriate and reflect consideration of diverse abilities
  4. the types of experiences students have previously had with rule setting and following

Correct Response: C. A structured environment that provides clear rules and routines for students' behavior contributes to an atmosphere of physical and emotional safety in a dance classroom. Rules and consequences for inappropriate behaviors should reflect students' developmental levels and abilities so that students will understand and feel capable of meeting expectations. Rules should govern both physical and verbal interactions within the class and incorporate the needs and abilities of diverse students.

Competency 0009 
Apply knowledge of human physical, cognitive, affective, and aesthetic development to dance and dance learning.

8. Which of the following dance activities is most appropriately introduced at the high-school level, given the typical sequence of students' development of abstract reasoning skills?

  1. learning and performing a complete dance to a song
  2. solving a movement problem with multiple possible outcomes
  3. improvising freely to a piece of music
  4. working with partners doing movement-mirroring exercises

Correct Response: B. Until they reach high-school age, students typically have not developed the abstract reasoning skills needed to independently solve a problem with multiple possible outcomes. Younger students can be encouraged to explore the idea of multiple outcomes by viewing multiple outcomes to given problems, but students at the high-school level are most likely to be developmentally ready to solve such problems themselves.

Competency 0010 
Apply knowledge of the use of creative and critical thinking skills in dance and dance learning.

9. When revising a dance work over time, which of the following is the most important consideration in determining what changes should be made?

  1. whether the changes will enhance the expression of the choreographer's vision for the work
  2. whether the changes address issues raised by others who have seen the work performed
  3. whether the changes will improve the suitability of the choreography for the dancers' skills
  4. whether the changes would result in a shift from the choreographer's original purpose for the work

Correct Response: A. A dance work is a product of the choreographer's imagination and creativity. As such, any potential revisions to a dance work must be examined carefully to ensure that they will enhance the choreographer's vision for the work. Any change that does not support the choreographer's vision should be avoided.

Competency 0011 
Analyze the connections between dance and other art forms and the integration of dance into other areas of the academic curriculum.

10. Which of the following expressive techniques is frequently used by both choreographers and painters to focus viewers' attention on the importance of an element of meaning?

  1. sequence
  2. variety
  3. contrast
  4. climax

Correct Response: C. In the visual arts, artists use contrasting colors, textures, or line qualities to draw attention to a particular focal point of a work. In dance, contrasting dynamics, rhythmic schemes, levels, and tempos are often used by choreographers to focus the audience's attention in a particular way. The tension created by the existence of the contrast creates a dynamic opposition that can be used to emphasize an important element of meaning in a work.