# Study Guide

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Field 174: OGET

Sample Selected-Response Questions

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### General Test Directions

This test contains two sections: a selected-response section and a writing assignment. You may complete the sections in the order you choose, but it is suggested that you complete the selected-response section of the test first.

Each question in the first section is a selected-response question with four answer choices. Read each question and answer choice carefully and choose the start uppercase ONE end uppercase best answer.

You should answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all.

For certain items, mathematics definitions and formulas are provided and can be viewed by selecting the button presented on-screen. The definitions and formulas may help you perform the calculations on the mathematics questions on the test.

The second section of this test contains one writing assignment. You will be asked to provide a written response to the assignment. Directions for completing your written response appear immediately before the assignment.

This testing session will last four hours. You may work at your own pace on the different sections of the test. Be sure to allocate your time carefully so that you are able to complete the entire test within the testing session.

You may start uppercase NOT end uppercase use any type of calculator or outside reference materials during the testing session.

### Sample Selected-Response Questions

start bold **Read the selection below,
excerpted from "Appeal of the Cherokee Nation" by the Committee and Council of the
Cherokee Nation in General Council convened; then answer the four questions that
follow.** end bold

- The people of the United States will have the fairness to reflect; that all the treaties between them and the Cherokees were made at the sole invitation and for the benefit of the whites; that valuable considerations were given for every stipulation, on the part of the United States; that it is impossible to reinstate the parties in their former situation; that there are now hundreds of thousands of citizens of the United States residing upon lands ceded by the Cherokees in these very treaties, and that our people have trusted their country to the guaranty of the United States. If this guaranty fails them, in what can they trust, and where can they look for protection?
- We are aware, that some persons suppose it will be for our advantage to remove beyond the Mississippi. We think otherwise. Our people universally think otherwise…. We are not willing to remove; and if we could be brought to this extremity, it would be not by argument, not because our judgment was satisfied, not because our condition will be improved; but only because we cannot endure to be deprived of our national and individual rights and subjected to a process of intolerable oppression.
- We wish to remain on the land of our fathers.
- We have been called a poor, ignorant, and degraded people. We certainly are not rich; nor have we ever boasted of our knowledge of our moral or intellectual elevation. But there is not a man within our limits so ignorant as not to know that he has a right to live on the land of his fathers, in the possession of his immemorial privileges, and that this right has been acknowledged and guaranteed by the United States; nor is there a man so degraded as not to feel a keen sense of injury, on being deprived of this right and driven into exile.
- It is under a sense of the most pungent feelings that we make this, perhaps our last appeal to the good people of the United States. It cannot be that the community we are addressing, remarkable for its intelligence and religious sensibilities, and prominent for its devotion to the rights of man, will lay aside this appeal, without considering that we stand in need of its sympathy and commiseration…. We intend still to cling with our wonted affection to the land which gave us birth and which every day of our lives brings to us new and stronger ties of attachment. We appeal to the judge of all the earth who will fairly award us justice, and to the good sense of the American people, whether we are intruding upon the land of others. Our consciences bear us witness that we are the invaders of no man's rights—we have robbed no man of his territory—we have usurped no man's authority, nor have we deprived anyone of his unalienable privileges. How then shall we indirectly confess the right of another people to our land by leaving it forever? On the soil which contains the ashes of our beloved men we wish to live—on this soil we wish to die.

####
**Competency 0001**

Recognize a writer's point of view and intended meaning.

1. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the selection?

- The Cherokees must protect the small amount of their ancestral land that they still have.
- The people of the United States share the values of the Cherokees with regard to their land.
- The Cherokees have a fundamental right to the land on which they have lived for generations.
- The people of the United States should support the Cherokees in their wish to stay on their land.

correct response: d. in paragraphs 1 and 5, the authors speak directly to "the people of the united states," seeking allegiance to a cause that is expressed most directly by paragraph 3: "we wish to remain on the land of our fathers." the selection's central idea, then, is that the people of the united states should stand by the cherokees as they seek to retain their ancestral lands.

####
**Competency 0002**

Analyze the relationships between ideas in written material.

2. In Paragraph 2 of the selection, the authors recognize that people who oppose their appeal may believe that:

- the Cherokees have already ceded their territory through treaties.
- the United States will guarantee the rights of the Cherokees.
- the Cherokees' best interests are served by leaving their land.
- the people of the United States will consider the Cherokees' appeal.

correct response: c. at the beginning of paragraph 2, the authors acknowledge that "some persons suppose" that leaving their ancestral lands and moving west of the mississippi river "will be for our advantage." the authors use the remainder of the paragraph to object strongly to this assumption.

####
**Competency 0003**

Use critical reasoning skills to evaluate written material.

3. The authors of the selection would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?

- Sometimes people must give up beloved traditions in order to adapt to cultural change.
- The connections people have to the places that they are from are critical to their identities.
- Resolving conflicts between people from different cultures is of the greatest importance.
- The understandings that people share are more important than the differences between them.

correct response: b. at the foundation of the argument presented in this selection is the assumption that a people's connection to ancestral lands is of critical importance. for example, in paragraph 5, the authors describe their territory as "the land which gave us birth and which every day of our lives brings to us new and stronger ties of attachment." the authors would likely agree that any person's connection to the place he or she is from is an important part of that person's identity.

####
**Competency 0004**

Recognize the roles of purpose and audience in written material.

4. In Paragraph 4 of the selection, the authors' statement that "[w]e certainly are not rich; nor have we ever boasted of our knowledge of our moral or intellectual elevation" is most likely intended to:

- communicate anger to stir the audience's outrage.
- persuade the audience by emphasizing a logical argument.
- express humility to evoke the audience's sympathy.
- engage the audience emotionally by striking a sorrowful note.

correct response: c. in the selection, the authors appeal to the people of the united states, attempting to persuade their audience and win their support. one strategy the authors use to make their appeal is, in paragraph 4, to engage the audience's sympathy by expressing humility, as in the statement excerpted here.

start bold **Read the selection below,
written in the style of an education magazine article; then answer the three questions
that follow.** end bold

^{1}part 1 I have memories of doing my eighth-grade language arts homework, dutifully paging through the dictionary for the definitions of vocabulary words and then copying them onto a worksheet.^{2}part 2 I remember that tedious process to this day; however, I doubt I remembered those definitions one week after copying them.^{ 3}part 3 Why was I assigned this task, and what did I really learn from it?^{4}part 4 Thankfully, in recent years, teachers have developed more creative and effective homework approaches.

^{5}part 5 To be an effective instructional tool, homework should have a clear objective, be relevant to course material, and feed student curiosity about a given topic.^{ 6}part 6 Another characteristic of well-designed homework is flexibility.^{7}part 7 If a student can reinforce a math concept by completing six problems, why should that student be required to complete 25 problems?^{ 8}part 8Ownership is a further hallmark of effective homework; one that is best achieved through student choice.^{ 9}part 9 For example, instead of having students answer textbook questions for a social studies unit, a teacher can give students a choice of making a crossword puzzle, writing a song, or to draw a cartoon about the content.^{10}part 10 By letting students individualize their assignments, teachers can encourage them to feel invested in their homework.

####
**Competency 0005**

Recognize coherence, focus, development, and effective organization in writing.

5. Which of the following methods of paragraph organization does the writer primarily use in the selection?

- chronological order
- cause and effect
- order of importance
- problem and solution

correct response: d. in the first paragraph of the selection, the writer draws on personal memories to establish traditional approaches to homework as a problem. after declaring that there is a solution in part 4, the writer uses the second paragraph to describe how alternative approaches to homework address the shortcomings described in the first paragraph.

####
**Competency 0006**

Recognize sentences that effectively communicate intended messages.

6. Which of the following parts should be edited to correct an error in parallel structure?

- Part 1
- Part 3
- Part 5
- Part 9

correct response: d. at the end of part 9, the writer presents a list of choices a teacher can offer students. while the first two choices—"making a crossword puzzle" and "writing a song"—begin with gerunds, the third choice—"to draw a cartoon about the content"—begins with an infinitive, creating a parallelism error.

####
**Competency 0007**

Recognize standard conventions of formal written English usage in the United States.

7. Which of the following changes is needed to correct an error in punctuation?

- Part 2: Change the semicolon after "day" to a comma.
- Part 3: Change the comma after "task" to a semicolon.
- Part 8: Change the semicolon after "homework" to a comma.
- Part 9: Change the comma after "unit" to a semicolon.

correct response: c. in part 8, a semicolon is used to separate the independent clause "ownership is a further hallmark of effective homework" from the dependent clause "one that is best achieved through student choice," creating a punctuation error. to correct the error, the semicolon should be replaced with a comma.

####
**Competency 0008**

Apply critical thinking and mathematical literacy skills.

8. start bold **Read the passage below;
then answer the question that follows.** end bold

The rule of 72 is a quick way to estimate the number of periods it takes for an investment to double in value. For example, suppose you have an investment that returns 8 percent each year. How many years will it take to double in value? A quick estimate using the rule of 72 involves dividing 72 by the percentage, in this case 8 to get 72 divided by 8 equals 9. It will double in 9 periods. Since the investment returns 8 percent each year, a period is 1 year, so it will take 9 years to double. Hence, if 100 dollars is put into an investment that returns 8 percent interest each year, it will double to 200 dollars in about 9 years.

an investment returns 6 percent, every year. Approximately how many years will it take for the investment to double?

- 6 years
- 12 years
- 18 years
- 24 years

correct response: b. according the passage, the rule of 72 can be used to estimate the number of periods it takes for an investment to double by dividing 72 by the percentage of interest earned per period. to use the rule of 72 in this case, divide 72 by the percentage earned per period, or 6, to get 72 divided by 6 equals 12. since the investment returns 6 percent per year, the period is one year so it will take 12 years for the investment to double in value.

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**Competency 0009**

Apply quantitative reasoning and problem-solving skills.

9. start bold **Use the information
below to answer the question that follows.** end
bold

A study concluded that an investment of 325 billion dollars would be required to achieve a goal. The study concludes that the cost for the program is equivalent to about 1000 dollars for every person in the United States.

Given that the U S population is 325 million people, which of the following statements best evaluates the validity of this statement?

- valid — since 325 times 10 to the sixth power times 10 to the third power equals 325 times 10 to the ninth power
- valid — since 3,250,000 times 1000 equals 3,250,000,000
- invalid — since 3.25 times 10 to the sixth power times 10 to the third power equals 3.25 times 10 to the ninth power
- invalid — since 3,250,000 times 1000 equals 32,500,000,000

correct response: a. to evaluate the validity of the statement, multiply the U S population by the cost per person and check whether the result equals 325 billion dollars. in this case, 325 million dollars times 1000 dollars equals 325 billion dollars, since a billion is one thousand million. in exponential notation, a million is 10 to the power of 6, a thousand is 10 to the power of 3, and a billion is 10 to the power of nine. when multiplying numbers of same base in exponential notation, exponents are added. since 6 plus 3 equals 9,325 times 10 to the power of six times 10 to the power of 3 equals 325 times 10 to the power of 6 plus 3 equals 325 times 10 to the power of 9 equals 325 billion. therefore, the statement is valid.

####
**Competency 0010**

Apply fundamental principles and concepts of algebra.

10. start bold **Use the information
below to answer the question that follows.** end
bold

The speed of sound in air depends on the temperature of the air. As the temperature of air increases, the speed of sound also increases. If the temperature is measured in degrees Celsius, the speed of sound is given by a linear equation with a slope of 0.6 and a

y-intercept of 331.4. The resulting speed is given in meters per second.

according to the information, what is the speed of sound when the temperature of air is 30 degrees celsius?

- 209.62 meters per second
- 331.4 meters per second
- 349.4 meters per second
- 541.02 meters per second

correct response: c. linear equations can be expressed in the form y equals m x plus b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. for the situation given, the independent variable x is the temperature, t, in degrees celsius, and the dependent variable y is the speed of sound, v, in meters per second. thus, the corresponding equation is v equals 0.6 t plus 331.4. given that t equals 30, then v equals left paren 0.6 right paren left paren 30 right paren plus 331.4 equals 349.4 meters per second.

####
**Competency 0011**

Apply fundamental principles and concepts of geometry.

11. start bold **Use the diagram below
to answer the question that follows.** end bold

The diagram shows a horizontal line with two points on the line labeled a and c. there is a circle with center at a and a circle with center at b. the two circles intersect and the point of intersection above the horizontal line is labeled b. a triangle is formed from the line segments drawn from a to b, from a to c, and from c to b.

The diagram shows two circles with the same radius and with centers at *A*
and *C*. The circles intersect at *B*. Points *A, B,* and *C*
are connected to form a triangle. Given that the measure of
angle A B C equals 120 degrees
what is the measure of
angle B C A?

- 30 degrees
- 40 degrees
- 45 degrees
- 60 degrees

correct response: a. in the diagram shown, segment a b and segment b c each are radii of circle a and circle b , respectively, since they each represent the distances from circle centers to point b on the intersection of the two circles. since both circles have the same radii, a b equals b c and triangle a b c is an isosceles triangle with base angles angle b a c equals angle b c a . the sum of the interior angles of any triangle is 180 degrees. since angle b equals 120 degrees, then 180 degrees minus 120 degrees equals 60 degrees, which is the sum of the measures of angle b a c and angle b c a . because the two angles are equal, dividing 60 degrees by 2 shows that angle b c a equals 30 degrees.

####
**Competency 0012**

Apply knowledge of statistics to analyze and interpret data.

12. start bold **Use the graph below
of the normal distribution to answer the question that follows.** end
bold

The graph shows a bell curve representing a normal distribution. The x-axis contains the following markings starting from left to right; negative 3 sigma, negative 2 sigma, negative 1 sigma, 0, 1 sigma, 2 sigma, and 3 sigma. At each of these markings, a vertical line is drawn upwards intersecting the graph and separating it into 6 regions. The bell curve is symmetric over the vertical line passing through 0 on the x-axis. The left most end of the graph flattens out and touches the x-axis just to the left of negative 3 sigma and the rightmost end of the graph flattens out and touches the x-axis just to the right of 3 sigma. The area of the region between 0 and 1 sigma is labeled 34.1 percent, the area between 1 sigma and 2 sigma is labeled 13.6 percent, the area between 2 sigma and 3 sigma is labelled 2.1 percent, and the area of the region to the right of 3 sigma is labelled 0.1 percent. The area of the region between 0 and negative 1 sigma is labeled 34.1 percent, the area between negative 1 sigma and negative 2 sigma is labeled 13.6 percent, the area between negative 2 sigma and negative 3 sigma is labelled 2.1 percent, and the area of the region to the right of 3 sigma is labelled 0.1 percent.

A medical report claims that the pulse rate in adults follows a normal distribution with a mean of 70 beats per minute and a standard deviation, sigma equals 10 beats per minute. According to the graph, what percentage of the population will have a pulse rate between 60 beats per minute and 80 beats per minute?

- 13.6 percent
- 27.2 percent
- 34.1 percent
- 68.2 percent

correct response: d. The graph shows a normal distribution with mean equal to 0 and a standard deviation of sigma. It is given that the mean pulse rate is 70 beats per minute and the standard deviation is 10 beats per minute. The question asks for the percentage of the population who will have a pulse rate between 60 beats per minute and 80 beats per minute. This is the same as asking for the percentage of the population that has a pulse rate within one standard deviation of the mean. From the diagram, 34.1 percent plus 34.1 percent equals 68.2 percent of the values lie between negative 1 sigma and 1 sigma, or within 1 standard deviation of the mean. Therefore, 68.2 percent of the population will have a pulse rate between 60 beats per minute left paren negative 1 sigma right paren and 80 beats per minute left paren 1 sigma right paren.

####
**Competency 0013**

Apply skills, principles, and procedures associated with information literacy.

13. start bold **Use the graph below
to answer the question that follows.** end bold

A bar graph titled percentage of U S households with internet access selected years nineteen ninety seven to two thousand twelve is shown. The vertical axis is labeled with a scale of zero to one hundred. The horizontal axis is labeled year. The values of the bars are: Year, nineteen ninety seven, 18 percent Year, two thousand, 41.5 percent Year, two thousand three, 54.7 percent Year, two thousand seven, 61.7 percent Year, two thousand ten, 71 percent Year, two thousand twelve, 74.8 percent

The information presented in the graph most clearly supports which of the following ideas?

- By 2012, most people in the United States used the Internet on a regular basis.
- Internet access in the United States increased dramatically between 1997 and 2012.
- After 2012, the expansion of Internet access in the United States slowed considerably.
- Internet use primarily grew in urban areas of the United States between 1997 and 2012.

correct response: b. the graph provides a striking illustration of the rising number of U S households with internet access between 1997 and 2012. this dramatic increase—over 400 percent—is clearly the central idea of the information source.

####
**Competency 0014**

Evaluate information sources to determine their appropriateness for given uses.

14. A researcher is assessing potential information sources on the issue of whether or not school districts should provide learning opportunities for students during summer. Which of the following concerns should raise questions about a source's reliability and accuracy?

- The source provides little or no specific evidence to support claims about the issue.
- The author of the source expresses a personal opinion on the issue.
- The source discusses several studies of the issue without interpreting their findings.
- The author of the source describes another source's argument in critical terms.

correct response: a. reliable, accurate information sources are typically characterized by the level of evidence they provide in support of their claims. the absence of such evidence should raise questions for researchers who are evaluating sources. for example, an article which claims that summer learning increases student scores on achievement tests but does not cite any studies demonstrating such an effect is not a reliable source of information and may not be accurate.

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**Competency 0015**

Apply knowledge of research skills.

15. A researcher is seeking information on recent studies of thermodynamics at a college library. The researcher begins by conducting a keyword search using an academic database, which returns several hundred results. At this point, the researcher can locate and retrieve information most effectively by using which of the following strategies?

- adding additional keywords and repeating the search
- reviewing the abstracts for all search results to determine which sources are most relevant
- using the same keywords to search the library catalog
- limiting search results to sources that are available in the library or as full text in the database

correct response: d. one challenge for researchers using academic databases is that basic keyword searches can return dozens or even hundreds of results. if the researcher's goal is to locate and retrieve information, limiting search results to sources that are readily available, either in the library or as full text in the database, is typically the most effective strategy when an initial search returns an overwhelming number of results.