Study Guide

Field 134: Psychometrist 
Sample Selected-Response Questions

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General Test Directions

This test consists of two sections: 1) a section with selected-response questions and 2) a constructed-response section.

Each question in the first section is a selected-response question with four answer choices. Read each question and answer choice carefully and choose the  start uppercase ONE end uppercase  best answer.

Try to answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all. You will  start uppercase NOT end uppercase  be penalized for guessing.

The second section of this test consists of one constructed-response assignment. You will be asked to provide a written response to the assignment. Directions for completing your written response to the constructed-response assignment appear immediately before the assignment.

You may  start uppercase NOT end uppercase  use any type of calculator or reference materials during the test session.

Sample Selected-Response Questions

Competency 0001 
Apply knowledge of human learning and development.

1. Which of the following core considerations is most important when applying principles of developmentally appropriate practice ( D A P ) to teach young children?

  1. grouping children according to their cognitive profile
  2. providing children with frequent praise of their achievement
  3. designing activities based on how children grow and learn
  4. motivating children to be focused and work independently

correct response: c. developmentally appropriate practice left paren d a p right paren is an approach to teaching that is grounded in the research on how young children develop and learn. it is designed to promote young children’s optimal learning and development. the principles of dap are designed and implemented with the belief that when teaching young children, one needs to consider the milestones of children in the areas of cognitive, language, social, emotional, and motor development. it is important to have knowledge of the typical processes of learning and development in order to address the most effective teaching practices for young children.

Competency 0002 
Apply knowledge of processes of learning and learning environments that are responsive to students' strengths and needs.

2. A ninth-grade student with a specific learning disability ( S L D ) in reading has been recently diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( A D H D ). A psychometrist is considering recommendations for classroom accommodations to support the student's learning and organization and would like to promote the student's sense of self-determination. Which of the following steps is most important to take for this purpose?

  1. ensuring that the accommodations that are recommended are observable and measurable
  2. working with the student to develop accommodations that the student identifies will be most effective
  3. explaining to the student the purpose of the accommodations that are recommended and why they will be useful
  4. arranging for the student to be regularly rewarded when the student appropriately uses the accommodations

correct response: b. when the purpose of considering classroom accommodations for a student diagnosed with a specific learning disability left paren s l d right paren and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder left paren a d h d right paren is to develop their self-determination skills, it is most important to acquire the student's perspective about the supports (e.g., educational services) and accommodations that they need to be successful in school. self-determination can be defined as a combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal-directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior while also having an understanding of one’s strengths and limitations.

Competency 0003 
Apply knowledge of curricula and instruction that promote student learning, achievement, and competence in students with diverse strengths and needs.

3. When considering modifications to make to the personal finance literacy curriculum for a high school student with a severe intellectual disability, which of the following questions is most important to ask  start italics first end italics ?

  1. What assistive technology does the student have access to?
  2. What types of real-life applications are available to the student?
  3. What essential outcomes should the student be able to demonstrate?
  4. What types of instructional activities will effectively engage the student?

correct response: c. essential learning outcomes are measurable outcomes that define what we expect each student to know, understand, and be able to do after being exposed to a specific curriculum. when considering modifications to a curriculum to address the needs of a student with a severe intellectual disability, it is important for psychometrists and teachers to understand what learning outcomes need to occur for the student to be able to access the curriculum. curriculum modifications can include learning different material or modifying the curriculum to match a student's learning abilities.

Competency 0004 
Apply knowledge of how to select appropriate assessments that provide accurate, useful information for determining appropriate interventions and making educational recommendations for students with diverse strengths and needs.

4. Which of the following measures would most effectively reduce bias when using an adaptive behavior assessment to measure the skills of an individual with an intellectual disability?

  1. the individual has an opportunity to preview the skills that will be observed during the testing interval
  2. a high degree of interrater reliability is established across all domains of the individual's observation
  3. the individual performs similarly on two different observation occasions elapsed by a long period of time
  4. all aspects of the individual's observations are recorded by a staff member who is familiar with the individual

correct response: b. an adaptive behavior assessment usually consists of observations of an individual's demonstration of daily living skills, community participation skills, and levels of functioning in specific areas such as demonstrating appropriate social behaviors, communication, and motor abilities, and applying basic academic skills. adaptive behavior assessments are often used in preschool and special education programs for determining eligibility, doing program planning, and assessing outcomes. interrater reliability is defined as the consistency with which different test administrators produce similar ratings in judging the same abilities or characteristics in the same target person or object. interrater reliability is important, especially for subjective methods such as observation, because a test administrator could be biased and consciously or subconsciously record only behaviors that support their hypothesis.

Competency 0005 
Apply knowledge of how to conduct and interpret assessment results to increase knowledge about students' individual strengths and needs.

5. A standard score, or z-score, is most useful in:

  1. measuring the strength of the linear association between variables.
  2. determining the degree to which different scores are independent.
  3. identifying the degree of asymmetry in the distribution of data.
  4. comparing multiple scores that are from different normal distributions.

correct response: d. probability distributions are ways of calculating the probability of a score occurring for a number of common distributions, such as the normal distribution. a z-score, or standard score, indicates how many standard deviations an element is from the mean. the standard score is a very useful statistic because it calculates the probability of a score occurring within the normal distribution and compares two scores that are from different normal distributions.

Competency 0005 
Apply knowledge of how to conduct and interpret assessment results to increase knowledge about students' individual strengths and needs.

6. In student assessment, a low standard deviation indicates the assessment scores:

  1. are lower than expected.
  2. tend to be close to the mean of the set.
  3. reflect only part of examinees' content knowledge.
  4. spread over a wider range of values.

correct response: b. a standard deviation is a quantity derived from the distribution of scores from a normative sample. the standard deviation is the average distance (or deviation) from the mean. standard deviation is also a measure of how closely centered scores are around the mean. in student assessment, a low standard deviation of the assessment scores indicates a narrow range between the lowest and highest scores or, more generally, that the scores cluster closely to the average score or "mean of the set."

Competency 0006 
Apply knowledge of how to use assessment information within the multidisciplinary team process to make recommendations and develop interventions that respond to students' identified educational needs and enhance students' educational functioning.

7. A fifth-grade student with a specific learning disability ( S L D ) in reading comprehension will be beginning a reading intervention. The psychometrist would like to assist the student's multidisciplinary team in evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention being used. Which of the following steps is most important to take for this purpose?

  1. ensuring that reading assessments given to the student are closely aligned to intervention instruction
  2. selecting reading assessments to administer to the student that are norm-based
  3. making sure the student is given reading assessments by a variety of staff members
  4. increasing the rigor of reading assessments used with the student as the student demonstrates achievement in the intervention

correct response: a. assessments should evaluate how well students have learned the objectives of the lesson they have been taught. in this case, the assessments, learning objectives, and instructional strategies to develop the student's reading comprehension need to be closely aligned so that they reinforce one another. this alignment reinforces the ability of an educator to evaluate the effectiveness of their instruction.

Competency 0007 
Apply knowledge of how to assess all students and how to use assessment data to enhance knowledge about and instruction for all students.

8. A sixth-grade math class comprises students with diverse strengths and needs. Which of the following practices would be most useful in identifying students at risk for learning difficulties?

  1. incorporating multitiered assessments into student instruction as part of a universal screening process several times per year
  2. referring students who are performing in the lowest quartile to receive an educational evaluation
  3. selecting students who have not mastered computation benchmarks to receive intervention in math reasoning
  4. analyzing results from a baseline assessment offered to students, which covers topics that will be addressed during the school year

correct response: a. it can be challenging to meet the academic needs of all students in classrooms comprising students with diverse strengths and needs. tiered instruction and assessment can provide teachers a tool that supports the identification of at-risk students. multitiered assessments allow students to best demonstrate the extent of their learning by providing them a variety of types and levels of assessment to choose from. this practice supports a teacher's ability to access each student's progress individually to identify specific challenges in learning.

Competency 0008 
Apply knowledge of effective communication, consultation, and collaboration processes for working with educators and other professionals and families to provide students with appropriate and effective educational plans.

9. A psychometrist is preparing to participate in an Individualized Education Program ( I E P ) team meeting to review comprehensive evaluation results and eligibility determination for a student. The psychometrist recognizes the importance of sharing and addressing the student's complete assessment information to the parents/guardians and the team with the goal of facilitating the decision-making process. Which of the following practices would be most effective for the psychometrist to take in presenting the assessment results?

  1. focusing the discussion primarily around the student's personality characteristics
  2. presenting detailed academic score results using specific technical terminology
  3. complimenting the parents/guardians on their effective parenting skills
  4. connecting the test scores to concrete examples of the student's strengths and needs

correct response: d. individualized education program (i e p) team meetings are designed to present levels of academic achievement and functional performance. a psychometrist's role as a team member is to present assessment results and participate in the decision-making process of a student's eligibility for special education services. providing concrete examples of a student's strengths and needs that are reflected in the test scores is very useful in determining what areas of need the student demonstrates. the psychometrist must be able to talk about the instructional implications of the student's evaluation results, which will help the team plan appropriate instruction to address the student's needs.

Competency 0009 
Apply knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of psychometrists in Oklahoma.

10. In the administration and scoring of a standardized assessment instrument, a psychometrist is ethically required to:

  1. consult with school administrators to determine the appropriate type of assessment.
  2. record the testing sessions to support the overall findings and anecdotal observations.
  3. follow all instructions in the testing manual with fidelity to ensure test reliability and validity.
  4. obtain parent/guardian permission to implement adaptations to the testing directions.

correct response: c. in oklahoma, a school psychometrist is responsible for the administration and scoring of cognitive and achievement tests. the board of certified psychometrists’ (b c p) code of ethics for certified specialists in psychometry consists of an introduction, a preamble, and specific ethical standards. under section d: measurement and evaluation, it states “psychometrists must follow standardized instructions as set forth by individual test developers and in proper context. exceptions to standardized procedures may include research measures or in cases where standardized administrations may not be possible or appropriate (e.g., cross-cultural assessments, sensory limitations, significant cognitive impairment).” psychometrist training should focus on the accuracy, validity, and standardization that is required when administering standardized assessment instruments.