Study Guide

Field 129: Mild-Moderate Disabilities 
Sample Selected-Response Questions

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General Test Directions

This test consists of two sections: 1) a section with selected-response questions and 2) a constructed-response section.

Each question in the first section is a selected-response question with four answer choices. Read each question and answer choice carefully and choose the  start uppercase ONE end uppercase  best answer.

Try to answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all. You will  start uppercase NOT end uppercase  be penalized for guessing.

The second section of this test consists of one constructed-response assignment. You will be asked to provide a written response to the assignment. Directions for completing your written response to the constructed-response assignment appear immediately before the assignment.

You may  start uppercase NOT end uppercase  use any type of calculator or reference materials during the test session.

Sample Selected-Response Questions

Competency 0001 
Apply knowledge of human development and factors, including disabilities, that affect development and learning.

1. Which of the following goals can best be achieved through the provision of early intervention services for children who have developmental disabilities?

  1. promoting families' understanding of their children's disability and how to enhance development and learning
  2. ensuring that children gain the skills needed to function in a general education preschool class
  3. facilitating interactions with children in the same age group who do not have disabilities
  4. determining the highest level of development and learning the children are likely to achieve across domains

Correct Response: A. The mission of Sooner Start, Oklahoma's early intervention program, is to build upon and provide supports and resources to assist family members and caregivers to enhance children's development and learning through everyday experiences. This is accomplished through individualized, family-centered, and coordinated services and supports. Supports may include, among others, speech-language therapy, physical therapy, nursing services, and parent training.

Competency 0002 
Apply knowledge of the various types of disabilities (e.g., developmental delay, specific learning disability, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder [ A S D ], multiple disabilities, emotional disturbance, other health impairment, orthopedic impairment, traumatic brain injury [ T B I ]), including in students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, from birth through age 21.

2. Which of the following descriptions most clearly suggests the need for a comprehensive evaluation for a possible developmental disability?

  1. A three-year-old is not achieving developmental milestones in the social/emotional and cognitive domains.
  2. A five-year-old with a significant hearing impairment is experiencing delays in language development.
  3. A seven-year-old is slower than same-age peers in meeting developmental expectations in the social domain.
  4. A nine-year-old with a visual impairment is experiencing delays in adaptive skills development.

Correct Response: A. Developmental milestones are markers that are set forth by early childhood experts as a tool to measure a child's growth in the domains of speech/language, cognitive/intellectual, social/emotional, and fine/gross motor development. Since children do not develop on exactly the same timeline, developmental milestones for each domain are expressed as an age range. If an otherwise healthy young child is not achieving developmental milestones, especially in more than one domain, it is considered a "red flag" indicating that the child's development should be assessed to rule out or identify a developmental disability.

Competency 0003 
Apply knowledge of assessment instruments and procedures for evaluating the strengths and needs of students with mild/moderate disabilities.

3. A fourth-grade student has been referred for a comprehensive evaluation to determine whether the student is eligible for special education services. The student has lived in the United States for approximately one year and has limited English proficiency. The Multidisciplinary Evaluation and Eligibility Group Summary ( M E E G ) can best avoid bias during the assessment process for this student by  start italics first end italics :

  1. providing a brief program of instruction of basic English literacy skills in the student's primary language.
  2. investigating the availability of appropriate testing instruments in the student's primary language.
  3. determining the student's dominant language as well as the student's level of proficiency in the primary language and in English.
  4. locating an individual who fluently speaks the student's primary language to explain testing procedures to the student.

Correct Response: C. Evaluation of proficiency in both languages is a critical component in a comprehensive evaluation of an English language learner in order to rule out a lack of English proficiency or lack of instruction as the source of the student's difficulties. The assessment team needs basic information about the student's dominant language and first- and second-language skills in order to plan assessments of intellectual functioning, communication skills, and other areas. This information will enable the assessment team to select assessment instruments that will provide accurate and useful information about the student's strengths and needs.

Competency 0004 
Demonstrate knowledge of the policies, principles, and procedures related to referral, eligibility, program planning, instruction, and placement of students with mild/moderate disabilities, including students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.

4. A sixth-grade student who was first identified with emotional disturbance in fourth grade was placed in a self-contained class with full-time special education instruction. The student has met Individualized Education Program ( I E P ) goals for the past two years and the  I E P  team believes that the student is ready for part-time instruction in a general education setting. Which of the following supports is most likely to facilitate the student's successful integration into a general education setting?

  1. specific adaptations to the general education curriculum such as simplified learning objectives and shorter assignments
  2. a positive behavioral intervention plan that addresses expectations for the general education classroom
  3. frequent verbal praise from the general education teacher when the student behaves according to expectations
  4. a personal paraprofessional to accompany and remain with the student in the general education classroom

Correct Response: B. When a student with emotional disturbance transitions to a new placement, the change can be stressful. Behavior expectations can vary depending on the setting and a behavior intervention plan will provide the student with the scaffolding needed to ease the transition. Addressing behavior expectations for the general education classroom in the plan helps the student understand the behaviors that are considered acceptable. This information also provides the student with a frame of reference when thinking about his or her behavior.

Competency 0007 
Apply knowledge of evidence- and research-based strategies and instructional methods in the instruction of reading to students with mild/moderate disabilities.

5. A special education teacher is providing instruction to a fourth-grade student with a learning disability in reading. The teacher's lesson follows the sequence shown below.

  1. Show the student a printed list of five high-frequency words.
  2. Point to and pronounce each word for the student.
  3. Read the word list chorally with the student.
  4. Read aloud a passage that includes the targeted words and have the student raise his or her hand each time he or she hears a word from the list.
  5. Have the student read the passage aloud several times.

Which of the following areas of reading development will this instructional sequence most effectively promote?

  1. fluency
  2. phonemic awareness
  3. phonics
  4. comprehension

Correct Response: A. The teacher's use of the described sequence of instruction exposes the student to new vocabulary in more than one way and engages the student in speaking, reading, and listening for the words. This approach is designed to enhance the student's automaticity in recognizing the words, which in turn promotes fluency because the student will not have to spend time and mental energy decoding the words.

Competency 0008 
Apply knowledge of evidence- and research-based strategies and instructional methods in the instruction of mathematics to students with mild/moderate disabilities.

6. A middle school special education teacher provides direct instruction to students with learning disabilities in mathematics reasoning. When solving reasoning problems, the teacher allows students to use calculators for computation. This approach is likely to facilitate the students' progress in solving mathematics reasoning problems in which of the following ways?

  1. increasing the relevance of reasoning skills to students' daily lives and activities
  2. fostering in the students a positive disposition toward mathematics learning
  3. enabling the students to devote more mental energy to developing reasoning skills
  4. promoting the students' generalization of mathematics concepts

Correct Response: C. Research studies reveal that the use of calculators is associated with better operational and problem-solving skills. In instructional scenarios that are not focused on learning basic skills, the use of calculators can free up the cognitive energy used for computation and enable students with disabilities to engage more fully in higher-order thinking skills such as problem solving, exploring patterns, and working with real-world data.

Competency 0009 
Apply knowledge of evidence- and research-based strategies for developing social skills and providing effective positive behavior interventions for students with mild/moderate disabilities.

7. Nate is a third-grade student with a specific learning disability who often gets up and walks around the classroom, seeking others to talk to, when he should be focusing on his work. Nate's general education teacher has noted that Nate has fully completed only three assignments during the past two weeks. Nate has had five office referrals over the past six weeks for refusing to cooperate with the teacher. The teacher has provided Nate with various seating options and quiet work areas, but Nate's behavior has continued. Nate's Individualized Education Program ( I E P ) team has determined that a functional behavior assessment ( F B A ) should be conducted. In this process, which of the following steps would be most helpful for the special education teacher to take  start italics next end italics ?

  1. calling Nate's parents to discuss their feelings about Nate's inappropriate behavior
  2. creating a behavior intervention plan ( B I P ) to provide Nate with positive reinforcement for on-task behavior
  3. arranging for a paraprofessional to work directly with Nate during class to reinforce on-task behavior
  4. interviewing the general education teacher to identify possible causes and consequences of Nate's behavior

Correct Response: D. A functional behavior assessment (F B A) includes a specific set of actions. Prior to designing and implementing an intervention or creating a behavior plan, information must be gathered from multiple sources using both direct and indirect assessment. Indirect assessment includes conducting formal and informal interviews with individuals who are knowledgeable about events and circumstances associated with both occurrences and nonoccurrences of the targeted behavior. This process enables the special education teacher to gather information about the possible function(s) of the student's behavior from different perspectives.

Competency 0010 
Apply knowledge of evidence- and research-based strategies and instructional methods for promoting the academic achievement and independent learning of students with mild/moderate disabilities.

8. A high school student with a degenerative neurological disorder has begun experiencing difficulty with the fine-motor movements required for written assignments. The student has been using a computer with word-processing software, but this accommodation alone is no longer sufficient for the student's needs. Which of the following additional solutions would best support this student in completing written assignments and projects?

  1. a wireless, flexible keyboard that can be positioned to facilitate access
  2. an adapted keyboard tailored so that single keystrokes produce frequently used words and phrases
  3. a tablet device that receives input through an on-screen touch keyboard
  4. an alternate keyboard with the letters arranged in alphabetical order instead of the standard configuration

Correct Response: B. Adapted keyboards such as the one described, also called chorded keyboards, usually have fewer, larger keys. Pressing a single key or combination of two or more keys, or chords, enables the user to enter blocks of text with one movement. This type of assistive technology is appropriate for the student described because it facilitates the student's continued use of technology in his learning.

Competency 0012 
Apply knowledge of principles, strategies, and procedures for promoting successful transitions for students with mild/moderate disabilities.

9.  start bold Use the information below to answer the question that follows. end bold 

Jermaine is an 18-year-old student with an intellectual disability. For the past year, Jermaine has attended high school classes in functional academics for half of the day and participated in a supervised work program at a restaurant for the other half of the day. The special education teacher is reviewing a work readiness assessment completed by the restaurant manager. An excerpt of the assessment is shown below.

Skill Observed by Employer
Mastered Progress Not Yet
Interpersonal Interactions
   1.  Speaks in an appropriate tone of voice. X this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank
   2.  Accepts responsibility for actions. this cell intentionally left blank X this cell intentionally left blank
   3.  Dresses appropriately. X this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank
   4.  Respects personal space of others. X this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank
   5.  Responds appropriately to feedback. this cell intentionally left blank X this cell intentionally left blank
Work Habits and Behavior
   6.  Demonstrates punctuality. X this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank
   7.  Checks in with supervisor. X this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank
   8.  Listens to and follows directions. X this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank
   9.  Remembers instructions from day to day. this cell intentionally left blank X this cell intentionally left blank
  10.  Maintains productivity with change in routine. this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank X
  11.  Seeks assistance when needed. this cell intentionally left blank X this cell intentionally left blank
  12.  Follows safety procedures. X this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank
  13.  Demonstrates ability to learn job-specific skills. this cell intentionally left blank X this cell intentionally left blank
  14.  Maintains work productivity with reduced supervisor contact. this cell intentionally left blank this cell intentionally left blank X

Jermaine's work readiness assessment most clearly indicates a need for continued support in which of the following areas?

  1. interacting appropriately with supervisor and coworkers
  2. practicing skills and tasks specific to the job
  3. adhering to explicit procedures and directions
  4. developing personal responsibility and independence

Correct Response: D. Information in the student's work readiness assessment indicates that the student is making progress but has not yet mastered interpersonal skills related to accepting responsibility for actions and responding to feedback appropriately, which is an important element in developing a sense of personal responsibility. In the area of work habits and behaviors, the student is unable at this time to work productively without supervisor oversight, which is one step in developing independence.

Competency 0014 
Demonstrate knowledge of strategies and practices for promoting effective school–home collaborations and encouraging families' involvement in their children's education.

10. An elementary school includes students with disabilities whose families hold diverse views regarding their children's disabilities. The special education teacher wants to establish communication with families that will promote positive learning outcomes for all students. Which of the following strategies is likely to provide the strongest foundation for achieving this goal?

  1. surveying families regularly to determine their level of satisfaction with their children's developmental and academic progress
  2. adopting an explicitly welcoming and student-centered approach that focuses on families' goals for their children's development and learning
  3. holding meetings for families whose children have special learning needs to promote open and constructive discussions and shared goals
  4. making it a priority to share with families research studies supporting specific practices that they should adopt with their children at home

Correct Response: B. Acknowledging and welcoming families' perspectives and views about their children's disabilities sets a positive tone for collaboration with families. This positive tone establishes the basis for effective two-way communication on a variety of topics. Effective communication, in turn, is a key strategy for optimizing the learning and development of students with disabilities.